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he international instrument addressing forced labor is within the ILO, which is a specialized agency of the UN.3 The ILO Forced Labour Convention No. 29 contains the following definition: [F]orced or compulsory labour shall mean all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily (ILO Convention No. 29, art. 2.1) 4 A menace of penalty includes threats of physical violence against a worker or relatives, physical confinement and denial of rights (ILO 2005, 5). The Convention’s prohibition on forced labor is not absolute (whereas the prohibition on slavery is absolute) because certain forms of forced labor are permitted for (a) military service, (b) when it is part of the “normal civic obligations of the citizens,” (c) convict labor performed for a public authority, (d) when necessary in “cases of emergency” and (e) “minor communal services” by members of the community for the community