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Average treatment effects on civic activity

While urbanization and economic development often bring with it improved gender relations, this is not necessarily the case for the . Patrilineal norms governing lineage
gives men privileged access to land, labor and technology. Further, traditional cultural definitions governing appropriate marketing activity for men and women (who trades which
goods, who buys and who sells) has given men an even greater advantage. According to
“the male-centered patterns of access to key productive resources that characterize the food economy are echoed in the realm of production for cash: men, particularly
senior married men, have priority access to the most lucrative domains.” Specifically, men
farm the most productive land and are responsible for providing staple products for meals,
but otherwise keep income from surplus crops to invest or spend on themselves. Women
cultivate smaller vegetable plots for both household consumption and market trade. With
revenue from their surplus yield, women are responsible for children’s education, clothing
and other household expenditures.
Democratization in the early 1990’s briefly advanced the role of women in Mali, but a
return to “consensus” politics with the mandates of were a major
settback. Under Mali’s first democratic president, women engaged in political opposition
and organized around the promotion of women’s and children’s rights as well as a reform
of the family law. However, the second president’s strategy of “reciprocal
assimilation of elites” succeeded in co-opting women’s groups as well as virtually all other
sources of political opposition This form of consensus politics
at the national level is also reflected in consensual decision-making at the local level like that
described. Dominated by male elites, these conversations often
leave women little opportunity to voice their op