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Transcription (BIO)

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA); ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
  • Mechanism of transcription
  • mRNA processing in eukaryotes, introns, exons
  • Ribozymes, spliceosomes, small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs)
  • Functional and evolutionary importance of introns

Translation (BIO)

  • Roles of mRNA, tRNA, rRNA
  • Role and structure of ribosomes
  • Initiation, termination co-factors
  • Post-translational modification of proteins

Eukaryotic Chromosome Organization (BIO)

  • Chromosomal proteins
  • Single copy vs. repetitive DNA
  • Supercoiling
  • Heterochromatin vs. euchromatin
  • Telomeres, centromeres

Control of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes (BIO)

  • Operon Concept, Jacob–Monod Model
  • Gene repression in bacteria
  • Positive control in bacteria

Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes (BIO)

  • Transcriptional regulation
  • DNA binding proteins, transcription factors
  • Gene amplification and duplication
  • Post-transcriptional control, basic concept of splicing (introns, exons)
  • Cancer as a failure of normal cellular controls, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes
  • Regulation of chromatin structure
  • DNA methylation
  • Role of non-coding RNAs