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criticisms of liberal political theory

St. Thomas Aquinas[edit]

Main article: Treatise on Law

Thomas Aquinas meticulously dealt with the varieties of philosophy of law. According to Aquinas, there are four kinds of law:

  1. Eternal law (“the divine government of everything”)
  2. Divine positive law (having been “posited” by God; external to human nature)
  3. Natural law (the right way of living discoverable by natural reason; what cannot-not be known; internal to human nature)
  4. Human law (what we commonly call “law“—including customary law; the law of the Communitas Perfecta)

Aquinas never discusses the nature or categorization of canon law. There is scholarly debate surrounding the place of canon law within the Thomistic jurisprudential framework.

Aquinas was an incredibly influential thinker in the Natural Law tradition.

Islamic Political Evolution[edit]

Mutazilite vs. Asharite[edit]

Al Farabi

Ibn Sina

The rise of Islam, based on both the Qur’an and Muhammad strongly altered the power balances and perceptions of origin of power in the Mediterranean region. Early Islamic philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between scienceand religion, and the process of ijtihad to find truth—in effect all philosophy was “political” as it had real implications for governance. This view was challenged by the “rationalist” Mutazilite philosophers, who held a more Hellenic view, reason above revelation, and as such are known to modern scholars as the first speculative theologians of Islam; they were supported by a secular aristocracy who sought freedom of action independent of the Caliphate. By the late ancient period, however, the “traditionalist” Asharite view of Islam had in general triumphed. According to the Asharites, reason must be subordinate to the Quran and the Sunna.[14]