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criminal offenders with schizophrenia.

In Sweden, all residents, including immigrants on arrival to the country, are given a unique 12-digit identification number that is used in national registers for health care and crime. With a population of nearly 9 million, Sweden has the largest inpatient hospital register in the world. This register includes individuals who are admitted to any general or psychiatric hospital for assessment and/or treatment, including secure hospitals, and the few private providers of health care. All patients are given a clinical diagnosis at discharge, according to ICD-9 (before 1996) and ICD-10 (from 1997 on) registered by their unique identification number. Hospital discharge diagnoses are thought to be comprehensive in terms of national coverage from 1988. The register is high quality—of the 1,421,795 patients discharged with psychiatric diagnoses from 1988 to 2000, no personal identification number was available for 13,669 discharge episodes (1.0%), and these were excluded from subsequent analyses.