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Criminal motivation.

Retaliatory victims blame others for failures, and they have an inability to take blame or responsibility. Because of this, they blame others for their own problems. In psychological terms this is called projection, which involves imparting one’s own feelings onto others. In a study by Vaillant (1994), the ego defense of projection was found in those with Narcissistic Personality Disorder in 100% of the cases examined. A revenge orientation may arise as a result of Paranoid Personality Disorder, Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder, and in some cases, Borderline Personality Disorder. Paranoid Personality Disorder involves a pervasive suspiciousness and distrust of others, to the point they see themselves as blameless for their faults and mistakes (Gertzfeld, 2006). Despite persecutory thoughts having no basis in reality, they suspect that others are always looking to exploit them, and they will always see good or positive interactions as having some hidden agenda. Because they view others with suspicion, it may be difficult for them to form new relationships. Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder may bring about retaliatory behaviour owing to their resistance to fulfilling routine social and occupational tasks, their complaints about being misunderstood by others, being argumentative, and the expression of envy and resentment towards others who are apparently more fortunate (all diagnostic criteria, see American Psychiatric Association, 2000). While not discussed anywhere in the extant literature on these motivations, not all anger behaviour comes from a retaliatory or excitation origin. In some instances, the anger is the result of a generalised state that is pervasive. As a result, these authors suggest the addition of a Pervasive Anger motivation to this classification.