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Crime and Criminology

A study conducted in Jordan by Gharaibeh and Oweis (2009) regarding the reasons that Jordanian women stay in abusive relationships provides some further implicit support. Gharaibeh and Oweis used a qualitative approach in developing five main reasons why women stay in abusive relationships. These are Inherited Social Background, Financial Dependency, Lack of Family Support, Sacrificing Self for the Sake of Children, and Social Consequences of Divorce. While some of these juxtapose neatly onto the victim-motivational typology, others require some level of interpretation on which to make a judgement. As they used self report in their research, more rationalisation than motive is explored, suggesting further work is necessary in understanding the base behaviours before attribution can be undertaken. In another work, Buel (1999) discusses 50 reasons why abuse victims stay. Many of these are representative of victim behaviour motivations. This includes reassurance oriented reasons such as Low Self Esteem, Gratitude, and Denial. Materially Oriented 10 reasons such as Financial Abuse, Financial Despair, Homelessness and No Job Skills were uncovered in this research as well. The identified Preservation needs Believes Threats, Children’s Best Interest, Fear of Retaliation, and Safer to Stay. There is no implicit connection to Assertive, Retaliatory or Excitation victims. It is noted that the author, while drawing on studies in the area of domestic violence, has not conducted any empirical research of her own, citing instead “some reasons I have either witnessed among the thousands of victims and with whom I have had the honour of working with over the past twenty-two years” (p. 19). This means that the distribution of these motivations within the studied sample is unknown, and the degree to which these results are generalisable to larger victim samples is also unknown.