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cost of the execution plan.

Optimizer ______ are special instructions for the optimizer that are embedded inside the SQL command text.

[removed]a. hints 
[removed]b. costs 
[removed]c. facts 
[removed]d. rules

Which of the following is NOT one of the steps you would follow when formulating a query?

[removed]a. Determine how to join the tables 
[removed]b. Identify the source tables 
[removed]c. Determine the order in which to display the output 
[removed]d. Determine the query output

What query optimization factors should you keep in mind if you intend to write conditional expressions in SQL code?

[removed]a. Equality comparisons are faster than inequality comparisons 
[removed]b. Numeric field comparisons are faster than character, date, and NULL comparisons 
[removed]c. Whenever possible, transform conditional expressions to use literals 
[removed]d. All of these choices are correct.

What type of SQL statement updates the data dictionary tables or system catalog?

[removed]a. DDL 
[removed]b. DML 
[removed]c. DBL 
[removed]d. None of these choices are correct.

Most performance-tuning activities focus on doing what to the number of I/O operations, which are much slower than reading data from the data cache?

[removed]a. maximizing 
[removed]b. replacing 
[removed]c. converting 
[removed]d. minimizing