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Corporate Cultures:

Integration is realized in unit grouping and coordination. Unit grouping, or departmentalization, implies structuring of activities and tasks into organizational units, and it can be based on input (functional), output (market or project), or a combination of the two (matrix). Individual and group activities and tasks in an organization are harmonized by coordination, in order for it to function as a unified whole. Coordination can be achieved through five basic mechanisms: direct supervision, mutual communication, process standardization, output standardization, and knowledge standardization (Mintzberg, 1979). Differentiation and integration in organizational structuring therefore imply four essential dimensions of organizational structure: job design, delegation of authority, unit grouping, and coordination. These dimensions of organizational structure are congruent, which means that there is harmony or concordance between them. Presumption of congruency is fundamental for the concept of organizational structuring (Miller, 1990; Mintzberg, Miller, 1984; Mintzberg, 1979). It assumes that congruency or harmony as dimensions of the organizational structure leads to better performance of the organization. In order for an organization to be successful it has to provide mutual congruency of the dimensions of its own organizational structures.