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Relationships between poverty and psychopathology

Since, items underpinning the conduct problems scale were measured on an ordinal (polytomous) scale, the weighted least squares means-variance (WLSMV) estimation procedure which yields more accurate parameter estimates, and standard errors when ordinal level data are modeled was used. All analyses were undertaken using Mplus 7.4.

A key problem with all longitudinal studies is attrition. Within the GUS data, attrition analysis showed that those who are unemployed, live in large urban areas, less likely to indicate their income at a previous sweep, and younger parents were more likely to drop out of the study The GUS data includes longitudinal weights generated using sociodemographic characteristics associated with non-response These weights were taken into account in the computation of model fit indices and parameter estimates in our analysis. With respect to missingness, there was negligible missing data on items used to measure conduct problems over time (average of 1.3%, 1.5%, and 0.98% across age 4, 5, and 6, respectively). Average missing data for covariates was equally small (2.3%), with a range from 0 (no items missing for nutrition) to 8.9% (income quintiles). According to Asparouhov andthe WLSMV approach for treatment of missing data implemented in Mplus produces unbiased estimates when the amount of missing data is not substantial and the model includes covariates that predict missingness.