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Construction management and economics:

They find, for example, that urban research communities like the built environment focus on narrower and more short-term research topics, are more competitive and are more influenced by the availability of external funding than their rural counterparts. They also describe a greater tendency for urban areas to be dominated by charismatic research leaders (the so-called ‘research stars’) than rural areas. Urban research is faster moving and more gregarious than that within rural environments and is therefore characterised by more networks, a higher level of conference attendance and an increased incidence of team working than in rural settings. The different patterns of working are also reflected in publication patterns and styles. Urban communities produce large numbers of short articles, often by multiple authors, whilst the outputs from rural communities like law are likely to be substantial, but less frequent, and authored by a single researcher. The gregarious teams of researchers in frenetic urban environments can therefore easily overlook their more solitary, and less visible, counterparts in rural fields. The danger for those operating in the rural subjects like law is that their lack of visibility can be mistaken for lack of activity.