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Consistent with the social-ecological frameworks

Consistent with the social-ecological framework, there is a movement toward the adoption of universal schoolwide programs to prevent bullying and promote a positive school climate. These efforts typically establish a common set of behavioral expectations across all school contexts and involve all staff in prevention activities. However, the findings from research investigating the effects of antibullying programs have been mixed.9,1 Recent research on SWPBISsuggests that it may help prevent bullying.19

SWPBISis a noncurricular, universal prevention model that draws on behavioral, social learning, and organizational principles. The model aims to alter the school environment by creating improved systems (eg, discipline and data management) and procedures (eg, office referral, behavioral reinforcement) that promote positive changes in staff and student behaviors. A SWPBIS team coordinates the program and establishes 3 to 5 positively stated schoolwide expectations regarding student behavior (eg, “be respectful, responsible, and ready to learn”) that are posted across settings, taught to all students and staff, and reinforced through praise and tangible rewards (eg, tickets). SWPBIS is implemented in all classroom and nonclassroom contexts. Data are collected on student behaviors including problem behaviors such as bullying and used by school staff to increase supervision and monitor the impacts of the universal program or guide the use of more intensive prevention efforts. It follows the 3-tiered public health approach to prevention,which aims to prevent disruptive behavior by layering onto the universal SWPBIS model more targeted (selective) and intensive (indicated) programs and services to meet the needs of students who do not respond adequately to the universal system of positive behavior support. To date, most schools have focused on implementing the universal, schoolwide elements of SWPBIS Two group randomized controlled trials were recently conducted on the universal SWPBIS model in elementary schools. They documented significant impacts on teachers’ use of effective classroom management strategies, student and staff perceptions of school climate and safety, discipline problems, and academic achievement, as well as children’s aggressive/disruptive behavior problems, concentration problems, emotion regulation, and prosocial behavior