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Confidentiality and anonymity in data

Qualitative observations are recorded by researchers as verbal statements that describe particular processes and outcomes, whereas quantitative observations consist of pieces of information recorded in numerical form. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are useful for theory development and testing, although a heavier emphasis in criminology and criminal justice appears to be placed on qualitative research for theory development versus quantitative research for theory/hypothesis testing and program evaluation. Many investigators use both approaches in a single study, however, because findings from each serve as a check on the other.Ethnography is used to refer to a qualitative study of a social group or (sub)culture in which a researcher compiles a detailed description of processes and outcomes related to the phenomenon of interest. An example of ethnography would be a study of prison inmate social systems and adaptation to incarceration in a particular prison (such as the classic studies conducted by Clemmer, Sykes, Carroll, Jacobs, and Irwin). A penologist might make observations about the types of inmates that exist in that prison and how they interact with each other in order to understand, for example, why some inmates adapt to incarceration more easily than others