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Computer Supported Event Analysis in Industry

When setting standards, tolerability limits, or control limits that apply to a particular activity whatever the circumstances, this problem is addressed by constructing a hypothetical type of individual or typical person who is in some fixed relation to the hazard, eg the person most exposed to it, or a person living at some fixed point or with some assumed pattern of life. Other individuals can then see how their circumstances relate to this typical person and reckon whether they or their family incur a greater or smaller risk. As such, typical persons may be regarded as persons (including groups) assumed to have homogeneous characteristics who are deliberately posited for the purpose of risk assessment. They may for example be persons hypothetically constantly present at the perimeter fence of a nuclear power station, or a group of workers presumed to be exposed to a given risk for exactly forty hours per week etc. It is therefore very important to understand that the determination as to where the risks from a particular activity lie in the TOR geometry (ie whether they lie in the unacceptable/tolerable/negligible region), is performed by calculating the risk to a typical individual exposed to the hazard under consideration for a specified period of time (usually a full working day) integrated over a full year. The calculations do not relate to the risk arising from the actual exposure of a real person to the hazard in question. Similarly, once it has been established where the activity lies in the TOR geometry, decisions on the measures that need to be taken across the board to control the risks relate to those needed to ensure the health and safety of the typical individual and not to those of an actual person undertaking the activity (though it may be necessary to adjust these measures to take account of any particular characteristic – eg a disability – peculiar to the real person). In short, the risks derived to the typical individual act as a pointer as to where the activity lies on the TOR geometry, which in turns dictates the type and degree of the measures that need to be introduced across the board to eliminate or to control the risks adequately