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Economic disparities

Despite the above limitations, our findings have significant implications with respect to identifying key areas of target for policy intervention. Firstly, helping families to overcome financial stress either through direct financial support or assistance to earn better income may help alleviate both parental stress and boost parental investment in education, key mediators of conduct problems. Approaches that increase family income do not only have positive effects on childhood behavior but also contribute to improvement in other outcomes including educational attainmen.Although several countries including the UK provide social support for low income families, such support constitutes a minimal safety net and significant levels of poverty still exist Secondly, considering the mediating role of parental processes and cognitive ability, target domains for intervention need to be expanded to include factors that compromise parenting as well as improve cognitive ability for children. Evidence suggest that improvement in one domain can serve as a catalyst for changes in another , and such multi-layered approaches may help break the cycle of poverty. Additionally, the significant direct effects observed between economic deprivation and conduct problems, as well as parental stress and conduct problems suggests that the effect of poverty on conduct problems is not exclusively a result of parental behaviors. As a result, interventions need to go beyond parenting programmes in a bid to reduce childhood conduct problems