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Climate change agenda According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC),

Climate change agenda According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Zambia ranked 124 (out of 179 countries) in terms of CO2 with a small share of 0.01% of global emissions (UNFCCC, 2012). Zambia has been experiencing the effects of climate change resulting in extreme weather conditions, such as droughts, rising temperatures and unpredictable rainfall patterns. The frequency and intensity of climate events is expected to rise in future, with negative impact on the economy and consequently people’s livelihoods. It is estimated that the impact of climate change will cost Zambia approximately 0.4 percent of annual economic growth. It is further estimated that without action, rainfall variability alone could lead to losses of 0.9 percent of GDP growth over the next decade, thereby keeping a significant section of Zambia’s population below the poverty line (MNDP, 2017). Zambia submitted its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) and signed the Paris Agreement on Climate Change in 2015. Zambia’s NDCs include both mitigation and adaptation components based on national circumstances. The envisaged climate mitigation measures include specific actions for renewable energy and energy efficiency highlighted in table 1 below. Objective Description Co-benefits 17 To promote the switching from conventional and traditional energy sources to sustainable and renewable energy sources and practices, and use of off grid renewable energy technologies for rural electrification as decentralized systems. Program involves implementing – Fuel switch (diesel/HFO to biodiesel) – Fuel switch (coal to biomass) – Switch from existing isolated diesel to minihydro – Introduce and increase blending of bio-fuels with fossil fuels and where possible substitution with bio-fuels – Off grid RE to nonelectrified rural – P.V and Wind – On grid expansion program to support economic growth and grid extension through interbasin water transfer – Grid extension to nonelectrified rural areas – Improved health impacts due to child and maternal mortality and retention of medical personnel – Improved education impacts due to longer hours of study and advanced teaching methods, safety, creation of opportunity for girl child and women’s education – Improved food security due to increased agriculture production resulting from use of irrigation especially for women – Increased rural development impacts due to increased economic activities through SMEs – Reduced indoor air pollution and load shedding – Reduced GHG impacts and improved air quality – Reduced energy deficits Source: GRZ, 2015 Table 1: Zambia’s renewable energy and energy efficiency program contribution to its NDCs. The implementation of the measures outlines in Zambia’s NDCs will result in an estimated total emission reduction of 38,000 Gg CO2eq by 2030, conditional and subject to international support in form of finance, technology and capacity building, compared to compared to 20,000 Gg CO2eq under the domestic efforts with limited international support. Meeting the conditional target requires an overall investment estimated at USD 35 billion up to 2030, to be mobilized through new climate finance mechanisms such as; the Green Climate Fund (GCF) and other climate related bilateral, multilateral and domestic financing including private sector (GRZ, 2015).