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Chronotype and personality factors in the daily consumption of alcohol and psychostimulants

Subjects with a higher score of type 1 pattern had high UAE levels. The high levels of UAE could be due to poor glycemic control and potentially high sympathetic activity. Due to the presence of accumulated risk factors for atherosclerosis, type 1 pattern was associated with increased atrial stiffness in the multivariate regression model.

Subjects with a high score of type 2 pattern reported high consumption of food, alcohol and cigarettes. Especially, they had high ɤ-GTP, uric acid, and triglyceride levels. These findings suggest the presence of alcohol-related metabolic dysfunctions. Also, the results of the multivariate regression analysis supported these findings. It is also plausible that the high BP found in these patients was due to the high consumption of alcohol and cigarette [36].

In general, subjects preferring eveningness have been shown to make a custom of adverse health behaviors such as smoking, alcohol use, and physical inactivity compared to those preferring morningness in the general population [37]. In contrast, subjects with a high score of type 2 pattern showed morning type despite having unfavourable habits such as high consumption of alcohol and cigarettes. The exact reason(s) for this discrepancy is (are) not clear at present. However, short sleep duration was reported to be associated with high alcohol consumption [38]. In this study, subjects with a high score of this pattern reported short sleep duration. The latter could adversely affect the classification of morningness-eveningness.