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Characteristics of data samples

Analysis[edit]

Several analyses can be used during the initial data analysis phase:[34]

  • Univariate statistics (single variable)
  • Bivariate associations (correlations)
  • Graphical techniques (scatter plots)

It is important to take the measurement levels of the variables into account for the analyses, as special statistical techniques are available for each level:[35]

  • Nominal and ordinal variables
    • Frequency counts (numbers and percentages)
    • Associations
      • circumambulations (crosstabulations)
      • hierarchical loglinear analysis (restricted to a maximum of 8 variables)
      • loglinear analysis (to identify relevant/important variables and possible confounders)
    • Exact tests or bootstrapping (in case subgroups are small)
    • Computation of new variables
  • Continuous variables
    • Distribution
      • Statistics (M, SD, variance, skewness, kurtosis)
      • Stem-and-leaf displays
      • Box plots