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Cell Structure and Function

Cell Structure and Function:

What are the 2 main functions of inclusions? Which inclusion has the specialized function for magnetotaxis? What do these inclusions contain?

What is the function of a gas vesicle?

Describe the properties of an endospore?

In what group of bacteria are endospores generally found?

What are the 3 main steps of sporulation?

What are the functions of the endospore SASP proteins?

Describe the different arrangements for bacterial flagella.

What type of energy is responsible for flagellar rotation?

The 3 main parts of the flagellum are the: rings, hook, and filament.

What protein is the filament made of? How does a filament grow?

How does an archaellum differ from a flagellum?

What is the requirement for gliding motility? What are the 3 types of gliding motility?

Briefly describe the 5 types of taxes. What is scotophobotaxis?

Eukaryotic Cell Structures:

Including the nucleus, describe the major membrane-bound organelles of eukaryotic microbes? Which ones have double membranes?

What is the structure found in anaerobic protists that do not have mitochondria? What endproduct of glycolysis is metabolized here for the production of ATP?

Briefly describe the theory of endosymbiosis and evidence for this theory.

Describe the structure of eukaryotic cilia and flagella and how their motion differs from the flagella/archaella of prokaryotes.

Ch. 3 – Microbial Metabolism

Differentiate between (ie. define) chemoorganotrophs, chemolithotrophs, and phototrophs

Differentiate between heterotrophs and autotrophs

Why is free energy important to cells?

What type of reaction releases free energy to do work for the cell?

What energy is needed for a chemical reaction to begin?

What are enzymes? What site on an enzyme binds the substrate?

What is a coenzyme? How is that different from a prosthetic group?

What is oxidation/reduction? (ie. what is donated and received in each reaction?)

What is the relationship between free energy and reduction potential?

What is the strongest natural electron acceptor? Where does oxygen fall on the redox tower?

What coenzyme commonly accepts electrons for cells? What are 2 other coenzymes that accept electrons for the electron transport chain? (NADPH and FADH2)

How does ATP function as the energy molecule for a cell? (ie. where is that chemical energy stored).

Because ATP is difficult to store in a cell (due to negative charges), what do cells tend to store that can be quickly converted to ATP?

Is fermentation aerobic or anaerobic?

Is respiration aerobic or anaerobic?

What is a common pathway for glycolysis?

In glycolysis, what type of phosphorylation generates ATP?

How much ATP and reduced coenzymes are produced in glycolysis?

What is fermentation? What types of products are formed as a result of fermentation and what is their function for the cell?

How do WE use some of these fermentation products?

What pathway oxidizes molecules from glycolysis to CO2?

–how much ATP and reduced coenzymes are generated?

–what is the main carbon product of this cycle?

–what is the fate of reduced coenzymes generated during glycolysis

and the citric acid cycle

How is oxidative phosphorylation different from substrate level phosphorylation?

What is the ETS? What types of proteins are involved in ETS systems? (Be able to recognize general names)

How is the proton gradient generated during ETS? (in general, ie. electrons are passed from a donor to acceptor and protons are pumped across the membrane)

–what does the proton gradient establish across a cell membrane

–what type of energy is this

What is an ATPase?

–which subunit forms the membrane channel

–which subunit catalyzes ATP synthesis

Where does oxidative phosphorylation occur in bacteria and archaea?

Starting with a molecule of glucose, be able to show how a chemoorganotroph growing in aerobic conditions obtains all of its ATP.