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Eukaryotic Cell Structure

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They are the cells with the presence of true nucleus. Organisms, with this cell type are known by the term eukaryotic organisms (or) eukaryotes. Animals, plants and other organisms excluding bacteria, blue green algae and E.coli have been grouped into this category. Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells. These organisms have membrane bound nucleus with many cell organelles to perform several cellular functions within the system. 

Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Eukaryotic Cell General Features

  • The size of a eukaryotic cell ranges from 10-100 microns. Few eukaryotic cells vary in their size.
  • They are large, advanced, multicellular and have membrane bound organelles.
  • They reproduce both by sexually and by asexually.
  • Mode of nutrients – Autotrophic and heterotrophic.
  • Kingdom protozoa, algae, fungi, Plantae and Animalia are organisms with eukaryotic cell.

Structure and Functions of a Eukaryotic Cell

Plasma membrane: They are semi permeable membrane that acts as a boundary of a cell, which protects and separates the cell from the external environment.

Nucleus: It is surrounded by double layered of Phospho lipid bilayer called as nuclear envelope.  They are the storehouse for the cell’s genetic materials in the form of DNA and store all the necessary information, which are required for a cell to control all types of activities. 
Nuclear membrane: It is the double membrane layer that surrounds the nucleus and it plays a role of entry and exits of materials within the nucleus.

Nucleolus: It is the non membrane bound organelles, which is present within the nucleus and is mainly involved in controlling all types of cellular activities including cellular reproduction.
Mitochondria: They are the double smooth membrane, which are present in all eukaryotic cells. They are the powerhouse of the cell. It plays a vital role in the synthesis of ATP and converts glucose to ATP.

Endoplasmic reticulum: They are the double membrane organelle, which divides the cell into compartments. It is connected to the nuclear membrane of the cell. It plays a vital role in protein synthesis, biosynthesis of lipids and steroids, stores and regulates calcium and metabolism of carbohydrates.  Endoplasmic reticulum is of two types – rough and smooth Endoplasmic reticulum.
Ribosome: It is present in the cytoplasm. They are the site for cell’s protein synthesis, which are composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins.
Golgi Bodies: It is the flattened membrane, which are mainly used to store the substances made by the cell. This membrane also helps in preserving, transporting materials within the cell. Hence it is also called as the post office of a cell.
Lysosomes: They are the membrane bound organelles, which contains digestive enzymes to break down macromolecules. Lysosome plays a vital role in protecting cell by engulfing or destroying foreign bodies entering the cell.
Cytoplasm: They are the jelly types of organelles, which are present in the inner region of a cell. It plays a vital role in keeping a cell in a stable and keeps the cell organelles separate from each other.
Chromosomes: The rod shaped structures, which are composed of proteins and DNA. Chromosomes also play a vital role in determining a sex of an individual. All human cells contain 46 numbers of chromosomes.