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causes of the resurgence of nationalism

Theoretical framework for the resurgence of nationalism

The theoretical framework demonstrates the impact that environmental factors have on the inherent patriotism of an individual. Each person has a close relationship with their nation that forms part of their identity. The cultural factors in the society may affect how people perceive others. Part of the opposition towards nationalism can be linked to cultural issues, which affect how the people perceive each other. In addition, social-economic factors may affect the sense of security that a person has about their future (Spencer & Wollman, 2005). Political actors may exploit social-economic and cultural factors to stir interest in nationalism. The resurgence of nationalism can be linked to the cultural and social-economic factors in the American society. Consequently, it is evident that the adoption of nationalism is a response to threats to the identity or survival of an individual. The push for nationalism is a reactive response to the fear and anxiety caused by the potential loss of the identity of a person (BBC, 2018).

The turn of the new millennium held the hope that most countries around the world would turn away from nationalism as globalization and technological advancements created new opportunities for the young generation to interact with others. It was expected that young people would be less nationalistic than their parents would as they recognized the shared value in the connection of different cultures and societies (Helleiner, & Pickel, 2005). The political future of many communities seemed to lie in super nations such as the European Union. However, nationalism started to enjoy a large resurgence across the world as the promise of globalization failed to result in shared prosperity.

Populists from Venezuela to Poland, the United States and Britain have exploited nationalism by casting themselves as opponents of globalists. The appeal of nationalism is evident in the need to project the fears and anxiety of a people to the other (Serwer, 2017). In China, Russia and Turkey authoritarian regimes have played the nationalism card to entrench their hold on power by concentrating economic and political control in their hands. Institutions such as the European Union have found that they are being held back by the increased resistance against the centralization of decision-making authority in the society.

The latest wave of nationalism seems set to endure for a long period as changes in the world economy continue to increase anxiety over the economic viability of many communities and their members. The success of nationalism can be linked to its immense power. It plays an important role in giving people an identity in a multicultural world where immigration threatens to break down the traditional conceptualization of nation states.

The definition of a nation over the years has been anchored in common ancestry (Gans, 2003). This view is responsible for the inability of many people to accept immigrants and assimilated persons as part of them. For instance, it explains the reluctance of people to accept Muslims as capable of becoming real Britons or Germans. In spite of the increased willingness among the people to accept that people with different skin colors and ethnicity as being part of themselves, the adoption of multi-ethnic nations has always been a social experiment that was bound to face some fierce resistance from the target population. Many people are keen to hold onto their mono-ethnic identities because it aligns with what they know about the role of nationhood in their lives.

The resurgence of nationalism in Canada and the United States in spite of the countries having experienced immigration for many decades demonstrates the enduring need for mono-ethnic identities and the endurance of their rigid racial structures. The progress that has been made towards reducing the injustices and inequality caused by the societal challenges in the society has threatened those who view the concept of a nation as being synonymous with Christianity and whiteness (Sharma, 2006). Changes in the society have threatened the status of many people who relied on their race or religion to access privilege in the society. Consequently, the pushback against immigration and racial equality could be driven in large part by concerns over the impact that it will have on the privilege, which is available to members of the community (Sabato, 2017).

The association of nationalism with one ethnic group risks enhancing the tensions and inequality that have defined the society in the past. As a result, it is imperative for communities to embrace effective intervention measures to enhance their ability to reach new groups and embrace a more inclusive form of nationalism (Waldron, 2002). The approach will be integral in creating opportunities for the society to benefit from the adoption of a collective identity. Presently, nationalism evokes a negative response, which undermines the ability of the people to have an honest conversation about nationalism (Sin, 2006). It is evident that each human being has an emotional connection with their identity. In a fast-changing world, the concept of nationhood provides not only an identity, but is also an important function of the hopes and aspirations of individuals. As a result, it is important for members of the society to empathize with those who have expressed support for nationalism because they believe in one form of nationalism.

The liberal reaction to nationalism has been flawed and only served to entrench the resistance of some groups against globalization. The view involves recognition of the inherent weakness in the continued attempt to encourage the power to abandon any collective identity in favor of transcending tribal allegiances (Brubaker, 1997). The approach fails to recognize the need for identity in a rapidly changing world. Nationalism has achieved a lot of power by expanding the circle of sympathy among a people who are concerned over their place in a rapidly changing world (Miščević, 2000). Globalists have contributed towards the rise of globalization by failing to recognize the adverse effects of globalization. However, it fails to recognize the impact that such a system has on the individual persons who are forced to compete with cheaper labor from around the world. As a result, nationalism has a flawed overall strategy but a more compassionate individual framework while universalism has a holistic and open overall strategy but fails to account for the needs of individual persons (Lomnitz-Adler, 2001)