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cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and improved mitochondrial complex

Symptoms are first seen in older leaves for some deficiencies, and in young leaves and/or tissues for others. This depends on the mobility of the nutrient. For mobile nutrients (N, P, K and Mg) deficiencies are first seen in older leaves; for immobile nutrients (Ca, B, Cu, Zn and Fe) deficiencies are first seen in youngest leaves and/or growing tissue. Typical nutrient deficiency symptoms and general information about corrective/preventative actions are provided in the table below.

Nutrient deficiencySymptomsRemedies
Phosphorous (P) – essential for cell division and plant growth; plays a key role in many physiological processesPoor germination, seedling establishment and plant growth; leaves may be dull bluish/greyish-green or have red pigment in leaf bases and dying leaves; oldest leaves may turn yellow and drop.Application of phosphorus fertilisers and manure, particularly from grain-fed animals.
Potassium (K) – vital component of plant functions such as nutrient absorption and water movement within the plant; increases vigour and disease resistanceOlder leaves have yellowing and scorching of edges and/or interveinal region; lettuce heads are loose; leaves may cup; fruit may be unevenly coloured or distorted.Increase K fertiliser rate; improve irrigation management.
Nitrogen (N) – needed for plant growth, fruit and seed production; a component of chlorophyll, the green pigment of plants that is responsible for photosynthesisPoor plant growth; older leaves are pale green to yellow and they eventually dry and drop; fruit and tubers are small.Add N fertiliser, for example as a side dressing before an irrigation; regular foliar sprays; improve irrigation management.
Calcium (Ca) – essential for new cell development; increases plant vigourRetarded growth; roots usually affected first, becoming brown; young leaves become yellow and distorted; blossom end rot in cucurbits and tomatoes; can be confused with the physiological disorder tipburn.Side dress with a Ca fertiliser; foliar spray susceptible crops at critical growth stages; apply lime or gypsum; existing damage is permanent.