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cancer cells versus healthy cells

Following Rosalind Franklin‘s confirmation of the helical structure of DNA, James D. Watson and Francis Crick‘s publication of the structure of DNA in 1953 and Fred Sanger‘s publication of the Amino acid sequence of insulin in 1955, nucleic acid sequencing became a major target of early molecular biologistsIn 1964, Robert W. Holley and colleagues published the first nucleic acid sequence ever determined, the ribonucleotide sequence of alaninetransfer RNAExtending this work, Marshall Nirenberg and Philip Lederrevealed the triplet nature of the genetic code and were able to determine the sequences of 54 out of 64 codons in their experiments.In 1972, Walter Fiers and his team at the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of the University of Ghent (GhentBelgium) were the first to determine the sequence of a gene: the gene for Bacteriophage MS2 coat protein.Fiers’ group expanded on their MS2 coat protein work, determining the complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA (whose genome encodes just four genes in 3569 base pairs [bp]) and Simian virus 40 in 1976 and 1978, respectively