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Brain Stimulation Therapies

  • Cognitive therapy. Cognitive therapy emphasizes what people think rather than what they do.
    • Cognitive therapists believe that it’s dysfunctional thinking that leads to dysfunctional emotions or behaviors. By changing their thoughts, people can change how they feel and what they do.
    • Major figures in cognitive therapy include Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck.
  • Humanistic therapy. This approach emphasizes people’s capacity to make rational choices and develop to their maximum potential. Concern and respect for others are also important themes.
    • Humanistic philosophers like Jean-Paul SartreMartin Buber and Søren Kierkegaard influenced this type of therapy.
    • Three types of humanistic therapy are especially influential. Client-centered therapy rejects the idea of therapists as authorities on their clients’ inner experiences. Instead, therapists help clients change by emphasizing their concern, care and interest.
    • Gestalt therapy emphasizes what it calls “organismic holism,” the importance of being aware of the here and now and accepting responsibility for yourself.
    • Existential therapy focuses on free will, self-determination and the search for meaning.
  • Integrative or holistic therapy. Many therapists don’t tie themselves to any one approach. Instead, they blend elements from different approaches and tailor their treatment according to each client’s needs.