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biological functional events

concentrations following the consumption of crushed flaxseed and whole flaxseed were lower than those observed in the ground flaxseed group. Data showed that the relative bioavailability of ELs from whole flaxseed was about 28% that of ground flaxseed, whereas the relative bioavailability of ELs from crushed flaxseeds was about 43% [51]. Although a number of studies have clearly shown that the intake of lignan-rich foods leads to increased plasma EL levels in most subjects, there are growing concerns that the bioavailability of ELs may be significantly influenced by food matrix, gut microbial action, and other factors, thereby being subject to large interpersonal, foodstuff-derived, and other variations. For examples, a continuous increase serum EL concentration was observed over a 4-month intervention with flaxseed (33, 52, and 70 nM at baseline and after 2 and 4 months, respectively) [52]. In another study, a dose-response urinary excretion of SDG metabolites was reported (with no plateau) after the daily consumption of 5, 15, and 25 g flaxseed products for 7 days [53]. These data indicate that the amount of ELs produced by intestinal bacteria may increase linearly, but that blood levels of ELs may largely depend on an individual-specific threshold, caused by adaption to metabolic and excretory mechanisms. This indicates that future intervention studies in human subjects should comprehensively assess the effects of several different lignan concentrations on the digestive system, blood, and urine