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Beneficence and nonmaleficence

Revisions to the 1953 version continued over the decades until the most recent version which was published in 2002 and amended in 2010. Each revision has been guided by a set of objectives put forth by Hobbs in 1948: “to express the best ethical practices in the field as judged by a large representative sample of members of the APA; to reflect an explicit value system as well as clearly articulated decisional and behavioral rules; to be applicable to the full range of activities and role relationships encountered in the work of psychologists; to have the broadest possible participation among psychologists in its development and revisions; and to influence the ethical conduct of psychologists by meriting widespread identification and acceptance among members of the discipline”.[1]

Revisions occurred over the years pertaining to many changes in society. Culturepolitics, the legal system, the economy and the healthcare system have all been influential in the development of the past and current ethical codes. The case examples were also removed.[1] Prior to 1981, there was no principle or standard that addressed conflict between lawand ethics.[9] One of the biggest changes occurred with the 1992 version of the code. Before this version, there was no distinction between principles and standards. This version was the first to make that distinction.[1] The principles are considered to be aspirational while the standards are enforceable by agencies adopting them, including the APA.

The current version of the code was developed in 2002, became effective in 2003, and was amended in 2010.[2] Amendments were made to the Introduction and Applicability Sections along with Standard 1.02 Conflicts Between Ethics and Law, Regulations, or Other Governing Legal Authority and Standard 1.03 Conflicts Between Ethics and Organizational Demands.[