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atom in nitrous acid.

 This syndrome was potentiated by short periods of hypoxia. In rabbits, replacement of aq. humor with 1% solution of ammonium chloride has caused considerable hyperemia of iris, but by next day eyes were almost normal, and in another day were completely recovered. The ingestion of ammonium chloride in doses of around 500-1000 mg/kg bw/day, for periods ranging from 1 to 8 days, has induced metabolic acidosis in mice, guinea-pigs, rats, rabbits, and dog. Pulmonary edema, central nervous system dysfunction, and renal changes are reported to have occurred after ingestion of ammonium chloride. Ammonium chloride is reported to cause alterations in calcium and bone metabolism in various species. Specific toxic effects on the kidneys as renal hypertrophy were found in rats receiving ammonium chloride in the diet. Other salts (ammonium citrate or sodium chloride) did not induce such effects. Rabbits showed cellular swelling and karyolysis of kidney tubulus cells after two daily oral administrations of 16.2 g/animal ammonium chloride. One-sixth molar ammonium chloride was given to mice orally in the drinking water after day 7 during pregnancy and although the offspring were small sized no congenital defects were found. In other study mice were given 600 mg/kg orally at 8 and 10 am and 12 and 1 pm on day 10 of gestation and produced 7% ectrodactyly in the offspring. Negative in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538 at doses with and without metabolic activation. Negative in the Ames test using Escherichia coli WP2uvrA with and without metabolic activation. ECOTOXICITY STUDIES: Four simultaneous early life-stage ammonia tests with small mouth bass were carried out at 4 different pH levels ranging from 6.6 to 8.7. Exposure to ammonium chloride solutions began on 2 to 3-day old embryos and lasted for 32 days. Concentrations found to retard growth ranged from 0.056 mg/L at pH 6.60 to 0.865 mg/L at pH 8.68. Groups of 180 Coho salmon were exposed to ammonium chloride at concentrations of 0.019-0.33 mg/L for 91 days. In high dose animals the hemoglobin content and hematocrit was significantly reduced and the percentage of immature erythrocytes in blood was increased. The key species, the earthworm Eisenia fetida, was subjected to a series of tests in solid phase mesocosms and full-scale units. The solid phase tests showed a relatively low toxicity to ammonium with ammonium chloride having an LC50 for ammonium of 1.49 g/kg.