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Assessing affective reactions to advertisements

Twenty-one pictures that varied in pleasantness were selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS, Lang et al., 1988). The IAPS is a large collection of color photographs, normatively rated using SAM, and designed for distribution and research use around the world as standardized affective materials. IAPS numbers for the stimuli used here are: 109, 124, 150, 204, 211, 220, 250, 301, 315, 416, 500, 560, 623, 700, 727, 803, 909, 914, 916, and 2 opposite-sex erotic pictures, 450 and 452 for women, and 418 and 422 for men. Contents included pictures of a snake, spider, gun, mutilated face, rolling pin, soldier, flowers, mountains, cake, baby, and others. Two separate orders of these slides were constructed to balance order of presentation. Each subject was randomly assigned to view pictures in one of these orders. The semantic differential rating system was administered as described in Mehrabian and Russell (1974, Appendix B) and consisted of the 18 bipolar pairs listed in Table 1. The 9-point rating scale ranged from -4 to +4, with 0 representing the center segment of the scale. Positively weighted adjectives are those listed on the left side of each pair presented in Table 1; negatively weighted adjectives are the right hand members of each pair. B