Call Us: US - +1 845 478 5244 | UK - +44 20 7193 7850 | AUS - +61 2 8005 4826

anthropogenic burden generated by tourism and the socio-environmental issues

In addition to manufacturing businesses, since the 1990s, after the first World Conference on Sustainable Tourism (WTO, UNEP, UNESCO, EU, 1995), sustainability has also involved the tourism sector. Since then the balance between the anthropogenic burden generated by tourism and the socio-environmental issues, has become central (Buckley, 2012). Sustainability has also become an important concept in relation to tourism planning and development (Southgate & Sharpley, 2002; Yuksel, et al., 1999), because of its both positive and negative effects on the community and society, the economy, and the natural environment. Choi and Sirakaya (2006) stressed that, if tourism development is not planned appropriately, it can destroy the very resources (e.g. economic, environmental, and social) that are the foundation of tourism in a community. Franzoni and Pellizari (2016) highlighted the importance of climate change as heavily affecting decision-making in the tourism industry. The authors describe the tourism industry as a strongly weather-sensitive economic sector, but, at the same time, they highlight the strategic importance of the challenge of climate change and global sustainability for the tourism industry. It is evident that, to be successful, tourism development must be planned and managed in a sustainable manner. This management needs the direct and active involvement of all the subjects involved in tourism, maintaining over time the focus on protecting the local natural and cultural heritage, limiting pollution, and searching for an equilibrium between the positive and negative social, environmental and economic impacts. These subjects are all the stakeholders (Freeman, 1984) who are interested in initiatives related to tourism and who are affected by tourism flows. They can contribute actively to managing tourism – related issues (Byrd, 2007). Taking into account the existing relationships is necessary in order to correctly direct decisions and to limit the risk of initiatives that do not reflect community interests and opinions. In addition, participation can potentially lead to the prevention of major conflicts between stakeholder groups (Healey, 1998), and represents an opportunity to adequately plan sustainable tourism thanks to the involvement of all public and private representatives (Battaglia et al., 2012).