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alterations of the wound-healing process.

EXUDATES FORMATION Exudates consist of fluid and leukocytes that move from the circulation to the site of injury. The nature and quantity of exudates depend on the type and severity of the injury and the tissues involved (see Table 2.3). Table-2.3 TYPES OF INFLMMATIORY EXUDATE TYPE DESCRIPTIN EXAMPLES Pathophysiology 34 Serous Catarrhal Fibrinous Hemorrhagic Serous exudates results from outpouring of fluid that has low cell and protein content; it is seen in early stages of inflammation or when injury is mild Catarrhal exudates are found in tissues where cells produce mucus. Mucus production is accelerated by inflammatory response. Fibrinous exudates occur with increasing vascular permeability and fibrinogen leakage into tissue spaces. Excessive amount of fibrin coating tissue surfaces may cause them to adhere. Hemorrhagic exudates results from rupture or necrosis of blood vessels walls; it consists of RBCs that escape into tissue. Skin blisters, pleural effusion Runny nose associated with URTI Furuncle(boil),abscess c e l l u l i t e s ( d i f f u s e i n f l a m m a t i o n i n connective tissue) Hematoma Clinical Manifestations of inflammations Pathophysiology 35 The clinical manifestations of inflammation can be classified as i. Local response to inflammation includes the manifestations of redeness, heat, pain, swelling, and loss of function (see table 2.4). ii. Systemic response to inflammations Table2.4 LOCAL MANIFESTATIONS OF INFLAMMATION MANIFESTATIONS CAUSE 1) Redness (rubor) 2) Heat (color) 3) Pain (dolor) 4) Swelling (tumor) 5) Loss of function (function laesa) Hyperemia from vasodilatation I n c r e a s e d m e t a b o l i s m a t inflammatory site Change in PH; Change in ionic concentration; nerve stimulation by chemicals (e.g. histamine, prostaglandins); pressure form fluid exudates Fluid shift to interstitial spaces; fluid exudates accumulation Swelling and pain