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the development of new urban transport strategies

This article draws on examples of international experience with policies to reduce car use in urban areas. The examples are indicative given the complicated and complex nature of urban transport issues; the authors do not attempt to quantify a particular mix of policies (see, for example, [10]). While most examples are from developing countries, a few come from developed contexts when examples from developing countries are less available. This article targets two main audiences: (a) urban transport sustainability researchers, who are seeking a review of academic literature and state-of-the-art practice; and (b) policy-makers (and politicians) in developing countries, seeking an overview of practice that can be used to inform the development of new urban transport strategies. The authors strike a cautionary note about the potential for international policy transfer in the urban transport arena. Contrary to a common belief amongst some development agencies that policy solutions already exist and simply need to be implemented more widely, the search, analysis, and uptake of urban transport policy ideas, concepts, or instruments from elsewhere are subject to a range of different influences, including political, professional, institutional, economic, and social. Research to date indicates that there is little evidence or prospect of “copying” of one policy from one area to another, certainly outside national boundaries. The potential for replication of “best practices” is questionable. City size is certainly not the only variable that determines the transferability of policy options. Cultural penchants and historic trajectories of transport demand and supply (implying path dependence) prevent cities (including smaller ones) from applying the same solutions to apparently similar problems. For example, the public transport trip share is 19% in Latin American cities compared to 5% in African cities; the average non-motorized trip distance is 1.0 km in Latin American cities and 2.1 km in Southeast Asian cities [11]. Where contexts are quite dissimilar (e.g., north to south), caution is suggested both in terms of the appropriateness and effectiveness of standard policy solutions being exported from one place to another [12–14]. Developing cities are advised to consider examples of transport solutions from both developing and developed contexts and to keep in mind that not all innovation originates from the global north. After all, some of the most efficient and cost-effective public transport systems have been developed in Latin America. Capitalizing on the iPad