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Africa Confidential. 2005. ‘‘Without Garang: The Sudden Death of Southern Sundan Leader John Garang Has Brought Riots and New Fears for the Future.’’

Southerners are more likely to recall or falsely claim that they were victimized by Southerners during the 2005 riot. This kind of measurement bias is a challenge in any survey research. While we cannot rule out the possibility, we believe this is not a major problem in our case, for three reasons. First, we spaced survey questions so that respondents were asked about the riot about three dozen questions after they were asked their views on separation, citizenship, and the prospects for peace, in order to minimize the chance that respondents’ expressed political views would prime them to (perhaps falsely) report riot exposure. We sequenced questions in this way in order to ensure that measured differences in political opinion could be attributed to riot exposure itself as opposed to being reminded about one’s riot exposure by a preceding survey question. Second, political attitudes were recorded by subjects themselves, so that they would have no incentive to justify anti-Southern views to enumerators by claiming that Southerners harmed them during the riot. Third, respondents were not asked to self-identify as victims or targets of the riot, but they were asked factual questions (whether there was fighting in their neighborhood, they were physically injured, lost a job, etc.) in order to gauge their riot exposure, which should reduce differential recall or false victimization claims.