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a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement

An sp3 hybrid orbital can also hold a lone pair of electrons. For example, the nitrogen atom in ammonia is surrounded by three bonding pairs and a lone pair of electrons directed to the four corners of a tetrahedron. The nitrogen atom is sp3 hybridized with one hybrid orbital occupied by the lone pair.

The molecular structure of water is consistent with a tetrahedral arrangement of two lone pairs and two bonding pairs of electrons. Thus we say that the oxygen atom is sp3 hybridized, with two of the hybrid orbitals occupied by lone pairs and two by bonding pairs. Since lone pairs occupy more space than bonding pairs, structures that contain lone pairs have bond angles slightly distorted from the ideal. but the observed angles in ammonia (107.3°) and water (104.5°) are slightly smaller. Other examples of sp3hybridization include CCl4, PCl3, and NCl3.

sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridization

To describe the five bonding orbitals in a trigonal bipyramidal arrangement, we must use five of the valence shell atomic orbitals (the s orbital, the three p orbitals, and one of the d orbitals), which gives five sp3d hybrid orbitals. With an octahedral arrangement of six hybrid orbitals, we must use six valence shell atomic orbitals (the s orbital, the three p orbitals, and two of the d orbitals in its valence shell), which gives six sp3d2 hybrid orbitals. These hybridizations are only possible for atoms that have d orbitals in their valence subshells (that is, not those in the first or second period).

In a molecule of phosphorus pentachloride, PCl5, there are five P–Cl bonds (thus five pairs of valence electrons around the phosphorus atom) directed toward the corners of a trigonal bipyramid. We use the 3s orbital, the three 3p orbitals, and one of the 3d orbitals to form the set of five sp3d hybrid orbitals (Figure 14) that are involved in the P–Cl bonds. Other atoms that exhibit sp3d hybridization include the sulfur atom in SF4 and the chlorine atoms in ClF3 and in ClF4+. (The electrons on fluorine atoms are omitted for clarity.)

Three Lewis structures are shown along with designations of molecular shape. The left image shows a sulfur atom singly bonded to four fluorine atoms. The sulfur atom has one lone pair of electrons while each fluorine has three. Two fluorine atoms are drawn vertically up and down from the sulfur while the other two are shown going into and out of the page. The second structure shows one chlorine atom singly bonded to three fluorine atoms. The chlorine has two lone pairs of electrons while each fluorine has three. Two fluorine atoms are drawn vertically up and down from the sulfur while the other is shown horizontally. The right structure shows a chlorine atom singly bonded to four fluorine atoms. The chlorine atom has one lone pair of electrons and a superscript plus sign, while each fluorine has three lone pairs of electrons. Two fluorine atoms are drawn vertically up and down from the sulfur while the other two are shown going into and out of the page.
Figure 13. The three compounds pictured exhibit sp3d hybridization in the central atom and a trigonal bipyramid form. SF4 and ClF4+ have one lone pair of elctrons on the central atom, and ClF3 has two lone pairs giving it the T-shape shown.